Announcement: Access the latest SOA updates on COVID-19 at

Due to unusually high email volume in Customer Service, you may experience a longer response time than usual. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents


Virginia (Jenny) Young is Expanding Horizons, guest editor. Education and Research Section membership is $15.00. We encourage you to join! Simply send a note indicating code #05–50–0100 along with your $15.00 payment to the SOA at P.O. Box 95918, Chicago, Illinois 60694. Payment may be made by check or credit card. The SOA accepts Visa, Mastercard or American Express. Please remember to include your card number, signature and expiration date.

Expressions of opinion stated herein are, unless expressly stated to the contrary, not necessarily the opinion or position of the Society of Actuaries, its Sections or Committees or the employers of the authors. The Society assumes no responsibility for statements made or the opinions expressed in the articles, criticisms, and discussions contained in this publication.

The section would like to encourage articles and papers on education and research topics or subjects of interest to education and research actuaries. If you have an article or an idea for an article that you think might interest section.